By Peter Lee Yu


Toxoplasmosis was first recognized as a clinical disease by a French Scientist, Charles Nicolle in 1909.

Toxoplasma Gondii


It is caused by a Protozoa named Toxoplasma Gondii.

Life cycle of Toxoplasmosis


When a man eats the toxoplasma oocyst (Parasite eggs) from eating raw meat or licking your hand after handling cat litter, the trophozoite (Larvae) will hatch in the intestine. It will pass through the intestinal wall and go into the blood and carry the protozoa to the brain, muscles, liver, lymph node or the eye.

1. For a healthy person, the infection will usually be mild. The symptoms are mild fever, headache from trophozoite going to the brain, muscle ache, rash and lymphadenopathy.(Which is the infection of the lymph node)

2. Severe problem for immuno-compromised people such as AIDS, cancer patient receive chemotherapy and organ-transplant patient that received immuno-supprersive treatment because there their immunity responses are weak. They may have severe organ infection such as Heart-Myocarditis, Brain-Encephalomeningitis, Eye-Choroid Retinitis and Liver-Hepatitis.

3. It is severe for a pregnant women because the trophozoite can pass through the placenta to the fetus causing.

damage to the eye (Choroid Retinitis), Liver (Hepatitis), Lung (pneumonitis) and heart (Myocarditis). Abortion at stillbirth (in the womb) may also happen.


1. Using microscopic identification from the blood, stool, sputum and CSF (Cerebrospinal fluid in other words it means brain juice).


1. There will be no need for a healthy person with mild symptoms.

2. Antibiotic such as pyrimethamine and cotrimoxazole for severe infection.

A congenital toxoplasmosis; microcephalus


1. Proper handle and disposal of cat litter. The life cycle of Toxoplasmosis

2. Good personal hygiene such as clean hand before cooking.

3. Clean hands after playing with cat.

4. Clean hand after handling cat litter or handling garden soil.

5. Cook beef thoroughly.

6. Pregnant women should avoid playing with a cat or handling cat litter.


Neugebauer, J. (1983). Atlas of infectious diseases. Switzerland

Toxplasmosis. (2010). Wikipedia. Retrieved (2010, August 26) from

Jones, Clayton. (2000). Fundamentals of microbiology. USA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers International.